Most people are well aware of the danger that accompanies intense exercise in extreme heat. Those who fail to properly prepare for these conditions are subject to dangerous bouts of dehydration and heat sickness. However, when approached correctly, training under warm conditions has its benefits and is known as heat acclimatization training. Keep in mind that it’s not for everyone and should only be done with great caution or under supervision by a certified trainer
According to a study published by Aoyagi, McLellan, and Shephard, some of the potential benefits of heat acclimatization training include:
- Improved aerobic fitness leading to greater cardiovascular reserve
- Slower increase in body temperature
- Reduced cardiovascular stress during exercise
Reaping these benefits are not easy and hardly a guarantee. As one of our previous entries on heat acclimatization shows, your body has to work much harder to perform than it normally would. With the right precautions and gradual adaptation to training in the heat, you’ll discover that it improves your fitness far more than training under normal conditions.
Failing to Prepare is Preparing to Fail
The better you prepare yourself for running in high temperatures, the better you’ll perform. More importantly, the better you prepare, the lower your risk of dehydration and/or injury.
Mind the Heat Index – The actual temperature of the weather itself is only one component of the heat you’ll face; Humidity also plays a large part. The more humid it is, the hotter it will feel outside. Check the NOAA Heat Index to see just how hot it really is out, and consider holding off your run if the heat levels are in the danger zone.
Hydration is Critical – It’s very tough for your body to replenish fluids at the same rate it loses them during exercise, so drinking enough water before a run, especially in very warm conditions, is one of the main things that will prevent dehydration and heat exhaustion. Bring water during your run or stop by water fountains if they’re along the way. I typically take a 32 oz jug filled half with ice and half with water. The jug stays full with cold water even as the sun quickly melts the ice.
Needless to say, running long distances in extreme heat is not a good idea. If you happen to be training for a long race and it’s a very warm day, try to run in shaded areas and drink fluids with electrolytes. Consider bringing a sports drink like Gatorade or a GU product to replace some of the electrolytes you’ve lost.
What to Wear – Opt for the lightest clothing you can find, both in terms of weight and color. A black shirt will absorb a great deal of the sun’s heat, while a white one will reflect it off of you. A good pair of polarized sunglasses can also make a big difference in comfort as they neutralize the sun’s bright rays.
Be Mindful of the Signs of Heat Sickness – Dehydration can result in heat exhaustion and it can progress to a heat stroke, which is potentially life threatening.
If you start to feel weak, lightheaded, or nauseated during your run – always stop. Don’t ever risk it. Just get into a shaded area and rehydrate. Here are some additional information about preventative measures from the CDC.
Note: above image is taken from Armstrong, L.E. (1998). Heat Acclimatization. In : Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science